Statement by academics on dealing with Sri Lankan debt

9 January by Collective

“Sri Lanka Masks” by Mal B is licensed under CC BY-ND 2.0.

Sri Lanka, along with many other low- and middle-income countries, has experienced a series of financial shocks due to both external and internal factors. Global forces have caused food and energy import costs to soar and interest rates to rise, even as the currency has devalued significantly. These shocks, along with a history of policy mismanagement—and specifically the deregulation and openness that encouraged irresponsible borrowing, enabled illicit financial flows out of the country and assisted political corruption—have intensified external debt and balance of payments crises.

Over the last decade of liquidity Liquidity The facility with which a financial instrument can be bought or sold without a significant change in price. expansion and low interest rates Interest rates When A lends money to B, B repays the amount lent by A (the capital) as well as a supplementary sum known as interest, so that A has an interest in agreeing to this financial operation. The interest is determined by the interest rate, which may be high or low. To take a very simple example: if A borrows 100 million dollars for 10 years at a fixed interest rate of 5%, the first year he will repay a tenth of the capital initially borrowed (10 million dollars) plus 5% of the capital owed, i.e. 5 million dollars, that is a total of 15 million dollars. In the second year, he will again repay 10% of the capital borrowed, but the 5% now only applies to the remaining 90 million dollars still due, i.e. 4.5 million dollars, or a total of 14.5 million dollars. And so on, until the tenth year when he will repay the last 10 million dollars, plus 5% of that remaining 10 million dollars, i.e. 0.5 million dollars, giving a total of 10.5 million dollars. Over 10 years, the total amount repaid will come to 127.5 million dollars. The repayment of the capital is not usually made in equal instalments. In the initial years, the repayment concerns mainly the interest, and the proportion of capital repaid increases over the years. In this case, if repayments are stopped, the capital still due is higher…

The nominal interest rate is the rate at which the loan is contracted. The real interest rate is the nominal rate reduced by the rate of inflation.
in the world economy, private lenders provided loans to low- and middle-income countries, at higher interest Interest An amount paid in remuneration of an investment or received by a lender. Interest is calculated on the amount of the capital invested or borrowed, the duration of the operation and the rate that has been set. rates than for advanced countries. These higher rates were purportedly due to greater risk exposure that could make debt repayment more difficult in such countries. That risk has now materialised, firstly through a global pandemic, and then the price shocks and interest rate increases of 2022.

Private creditors own almost 40% of Sri Lanka’s external debt stock Debt stock The total amount of debt , mostly in the form of International Sovereign Bonds (ISBs), but higher interest rates mean that they receive over 50% of external debt payments. Such lenders charged a premium to lend to Sri Lanka to cover their risks, which accrued them massive profits and contributed to Sri Lanka’s first ever default in April 2022. Lenders who benefited from higher returns because of the “risk premium Risk premium When loans are granted, the creditors take account of the economic situation of the debtor country in fixing the interest rate. If there seems to be a risk that the debtor country may not be able to honour its repayments then that will lead to an increase in the rates it will be charged. Thus the creditors receive more interest, which is supposed to compensate for the risk taken in granting the loan. This means that the cost to the borrower country is much higher, accentuating the financial pressure it has to bear. For example, in 2002, Argentina was faced with risk premiums of more than 4,000 points, meaning that for a hypothetical market interest rate of 5%, Argentina would have to borrow at a rate of 45%. This cuts it off de facto from access to credit, forcing it even deeper into crisis. For Brazil in August 2002, the risk premium was at 2,500 points. ” must be willing to take the consequences of that risk. Indeed, ISBs are now trading Market activities
Buying and selling of financial instruments such as shares, futures, derivatives, options, and warrants conducted in the hope of making a short-term profit.
at significantly lower prices in the secondary market Secondary market The market where institutional investors resell and purchase financial assets. Thus the secondary market is the market where already existing financial assets are traded. . In this context, giving private bondholders an upper hand relative to sovereign debtors in the Paris Club Paris Club This group of lender States was founded in 1956 and specializes in dealing with non-payment by developing countries.

International Monetary Fund
Along with the World Bank, the IMF was founded on the day the Bretton Woods Agreements were signed. Its first mission was to support the new system of standard exchange rates.

When the Bretton Wood fixed rates system came to an end in 1971, the main function of the IMF became that of being both policeman and fireman for global capital: it acts as policeman when it enforces its Structural Adjustment Policies and as fireman when it steps in to help out governments in risk of defaulting on debt repayments.

As for the World Bank, a weighted voting system operates: depending on the amount paid as contribution by each member state. 85% of the votes is required to modify the IMF Charter (which means that the USA with 17,68% % of the votes has a de facto veto on any change).

The institution is dominated by five countries: the United States (16,74%), Japan (6,23%), Germany (5,81%), France (4,29%) and the UK (4,29%).
The other 183 member countries are divided into groups led by one country. The most important one (6,57% of the votes) is led by Belgium. The least important group of countries (1,55% of the votes) is led by Gabon and brings together African countries.
’s required debt negotiations violates the basic principles of natural justice.

In addition, the lack of transparency of the debt negotiation process and accountability of the holders of ISBs underscores the concern that risky lending to corrupt politicians (leading to what is now recognised as “odious debt Odious Debt According to the doctrine, for a debt to be odious it must meet two conditions:
1) It must have been contracted against the interests of the Nation, or against the interests of the People, or against the interests of the State.
2) Creditors cannot prove they they were unaware of how the borrowed money would be used.

We must underline that according to the doctrine of odious debt, the nature of the borrowing regime or government does not signify, since what matters is what the debt is used for. If a democratic government gets into debt against the interests of its population, the contracted debt can be called odious if it also meets the second condition. Consequently, contrary to a misleading version of the doctrine, odious debt is not only about dictatorial regimes.

(See Éric Toussaint, The Doctrine of Odious Debt : from Alexander Sack to the CADTM).

The father of the odious debt doctrine, Alexander Nahum Sack, clearly says that odious debts can be contracted by any regular government. Sack considers that a debt that is regularly incurred by a regular government can be branded as odious if the two above-mentioned conditions are met.
He adds, “once these two points are established, the burden of proof that the funds were used for the general or special needs of the State and were not of an odious character, would be upon the creditors.”

Sack defines a regular government as follows: “By a regular government is to be understood the supreme power that effectively exists within the limits of a given territory. Whether that government be monarchical (absolute or limited) or republican; whether it functions by “the grace of God” or “the will of the people”; whether it express “the will of the people” or not, of all the people or only of some; whether it be legally established or not, etc., none of that is relevant to the problem we are concerned with.”

So clearly for Sack, all regular governments, whether despotic or democratic, in one guise or another, can incur odious debts.
”) was a significant element in generating the current debt crisis. Apart from revealing the identity of ISB holders, it is also important to disclose how ISBs were deployed, and the use of those funds.

Debt negotiations in Sri Lanka are now at a crucial stage. All lenders—bilateral, multilateral, and private—must share Share A unit of ownership interest in a corporation or financial asset, representing one part of the total capital stock. Its owner (a shareholder) is entitled to receive an equal distribution of any profits distributed (a dividend) and to attend shareholder meetings. the burden of restructuring, with assurance of additional financing in the near term. However, Sri Lanka on its own cannot ensure this; it requires much greater international support. Instead of geopolitical manoeuvring, all of Sri Lanka’s creditors must ensure debt cancellation sufficient to provide a way out of the current crisis.

The role of multilateral organisations, particularly the international financial institutions (IFIs), such as the IMF and the World Bank World Bank
The World Bank was founded as part of the new international monetary system set up at Bretton Woods in 1944. Its capital is provided by member states’ contributions and loans on the international money markets. It financed public and private projects in Third World and East European countries.

It consists of several closely associated institutions, among which :

1. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, 189 members in 2017), which provides loans in productive sectors such as farming or energy ;

2. The International Development Association (IDA, 159 members in 1997), which provides less advanced countries with long-term loans (35-40 years) at very low interest (1%) ;

3. The International Finance Corporation (IFC), which provides both loan and equity finance for business ventures in developing countries.

As Third World Debt gets worse, the World Bank (along with the IMF) tends to adopt a macro-economic perspective. For instance, it enforces adjustment policies that are intended to balance heavily indebted countries’ payments. The World Bank advises those countries that have to undergo the IMF’s therapy on such matters as how to reduce budget deficits, round up savings, enduce foreign investors to settle within their borders, or free prices and exchange rates.

, is also significant. They were founded to assist sovereign nations, particularly in contexts in which financial markets would not deliver, to ensure financial stability and prevent or reduce the impact of financial crises, and to provide resources for crucial investments required to meet social and developmental needs.

The IFIs are not currently living up to these responsibilities, at a time when they are most urgently required. In Sri Lanka they encouraged the very policies of more open capital accounts and deregulation that have led to the current crisis. They have been slow to respond to the crisis, and are apparently requiring onerous policy and fiscal conditionalities, such as moving to a primary fiscal surplus in a very short time, even as the economy continues to plunge.

The implications are already evident in the recent Budget of the Sri Lankan government, which has unrealistic revenue assumptions that are unlikely to be met. Revenue shortfalls would then necessitate further “austerity” and likely cuts in essential public spending. The Budget also proposes public asset Asset Something belonging to an individual or a business that has value or the power to earn money (FT). The opposite of assets are liabilities, that is the part of the balance sheet reflecting a company’s resources (the capital contributed by the partners, provisions for contingencies and charges, as well as the outstanding debts). stripping and privatization of strategic lands, marine resources, energy, transport and telecom infrastructure and public enterprises. These policies will harm the most vulnerable groups in Sri Lanka, exacerbate poverty and inequality, and lead to further economic decline. Instead the focus should be on legal and regulatory changes to stem the illicit outflow of capital through transfer pricing and trade mis-invoicing over the past 15 years, which is estimated to be far more than the aggregate foreign debt of Sri Lanka, and on taxation of wealth and consumption of the super-rich.

The Sri Lankan case will provide an important indicator of whether the world—and the international financial system in particular—is equipped to deal with the increasingly urgent questions of sovereign debt Sovereign debt Government debts or debts guaranteed by the government. relief and sustainability; and to ensure a modicum of justice in international debt negotiations. It is therefore crucial not only for the people of Sri Lanka, but to restore any faith in a multilateral system that is already under fire for its lack of legitimacy and basic viability.

1 - Jayati Ghosh, Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, USA and India;
2 - Dani Rodrik, Ford Foundation Professor of Political Economy, Harvard University, USA;
3 - Thomas Piketty, Professor of Economics, Ecole d’economie de Paris/Paris School of Economics, France;
4 - Ravi Kanbur, T. H. Lee Professor of World Affairs, Professor of Economics, Cornell University, U.S.A.;
5 - Atul Kohli, David Bruce Professor of International Affairs, Princeton University, USA
6 - Sakiko Fakuda-Parr, Professor of International Affairs, The New School, USA;
7 - Gary Dymski, Professor of Applied Economics, University of Leeds, UK.
8 - Robert H Wade, Professor of Political Economy and Development, London School of Economics, U.K.;
9 - Jomo Kwame Sundaram, Professor of Malaya, Malaysia; and former UN Assistant Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs;
10 - Jean Dreze, Professor of Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics, India;
11 - Guy Standing, Professorial Fellow, SOAS – University of London, U.K.;
12 - Yanis Varoufakis, Professor of Economics, University of Athens, Greece;
13 - Irene van Staveren; Professor of Economics, Erasmus University of Rotterdam, The Netherlands;
14 - Jane Humphries, Centennial Professor/Professor Emerita of Economic History, London School of Economics/Oxford University, U.K.;
15 - Daniela Gabor, Professor of Economics and Micro-Finance, University of West England, U.K.;
16 - Ha-Joon Chang, Research Professor of Economics, SOAS – University of London, U.K.;
17 - Alfredo Saad Filho, Professor of Economics, Kings College – London, U.K.;
18 - Sanjay Reddy, Professor of Economics, New School for Social Research, NY, USA;
19 - Rolph van der Hoeven, Professor of Employment and Development Economics, International Institute of Social Studies, The Netherlands;
20 - Jungi Tokunaga, Professor of Economics, Dokkyo University – Tokyo, Japan;
21 - Yavuz Yasar, Professor of Economics, University of Denver – Colorado, USA;
22 - Ben Fine, Professor of Economics, SOAS – University of London, U.K.;
23 - C. P. Chandrasekhar, Professor and Senior Research Fellow, Political Economy of Research Institute, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, USA;
24 - Alicia Girón, Professor and Director University Studies Program on Asia and Africa, UNAM-Mexico
25 - Costas Lapavitsas, Professor of Economics, SOAS – University of London, U.K.;
26 - Juan Pablo Bohoslavsky, Professor and Researcher - CONICET, Argentina, former UN Independent Expert on Debt and Human Rights;
27 - Ipek Ilkkaracan, Professor of Economics, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey;
28 - Sergio Cesaratto, Professor of Economics, University of Sienna, Italy.;
29 - Lawrence King, Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, USA;
30 - Mahalya Chatterjee, Professor of Economics, Calcutta University, India;
31 - Nancy Folbre, Professor Emerita of Economics, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, USA;
32 - Ravi Bhandari, Professor of Economics, Skyline Community College, USA;
33 - Utsa Patnaik, Professor Emerita of Economics, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India;
34 - Sudip Chaudhuri, Professor of Economics, Centre for Development Studies – Trivandrum, India;
35 - Yana Rodgers, Professor of Economics, Rutgers University, NJ, USA;
36 - Gunseli Berik, Professor of Economics, University of Utah, USA;
37 - Prabhat Patnaik, Professor Emeritus of Economics, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India;
38 - Lucas Chancel, Professor and Co-Director - World Inequality Lab, Paris School of Economics;
39 - Lee Badgett, Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, USA;
40 - Radhika Balakrishnan, Professor of Economics & Women and Gender Studies, Rutgers University, USA;
41 - Randy Abelda, Professor Emerita of Economics and Public Policy, University of Massachusetts-Boston, USA;
42 - David F Ruccio, Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Notre Dame, USA;
43 - Heidi Hartmann, Professor of Economics and International Development, American University, USA;
44 - Gerald Epstein, Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, USA;
45 - Smriti Rao, Professor of Economics, Assumption University, USA;
46 - Naila Kabeer, Professor of Gender and Development, London School of Economics, U.K.;
47 - Barbara Harriss-White, Professor Emerita of Development Studies, Oxford University, U.K.;
48 - Aaron Schneider, Professor and Leo Block Chair – Development, University of Denver, USA;
49 - Kanchana N Ruwanpura, Professor of Development Geography, University of Gothenburg, Sweden;
50 - Raj Patel, Research Professor, Lyndon B Johnson School of Public Policy, University of Texas-Austin, USA;
51 - Muthucumaraswamy Sornarajah; Professor Emeritus of Law, National University of Singapore, Singapore;
52 - Vinay Gidwani, Professor of Geography, Environment and Society, University of Minnesota, USA;
53 - Vasuki Nesiah, Professor of Practice in Human Rights and International Law, New York University,USA;
54 - Page Fortna, Harold Brown Professor of U.S. Foreign Security and Security Policy, Columbia University, USA.;
55 - Shirin Rai, Research Professor of International Development, SOAS – University of London, U.K.;
56 - Suzanne Bergeron, Helen M Graves Professor of Women’s Studies and Social Sciences, University of Michigan-Dearbon, U.S.A.;
57 - Kanishka Goonewardena, Professor of Human Geography, University of Toronto, Canada;
58 - Dia da Costa, Professor of Social Justice and International Studies, University of Alberta, Canada;
59 - Kanishka Jayasuriya, Professor of Politics and International Studies, Murdoch University, Australia;
60 - Kevin Gallagher, Professor of Global Development Policy, The Frederick S Pardee School of Global Studies, Boston University, USA;
61 - Arjun Guneratne, Professor of Anthropology, Macalster College, USA;
62 - Pasuk Phonpaichat, Professor Emerita of Economics, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand;
63 - Roger Jeffrey, Professor of Development Sociology, University of Edinburgh, U.K.;
64 - Ben Selwyn, Professor of International Development, University of Sussex, U.K.;
65 - Jennifer Olmstead, Professor of Economics, Drew University, U.S.A.;
66 - Parthapratim Pal, Professor of Economics, India Institute of Management – Calcutta, India;
67 - S. Charusheela, Professor of Economics and Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Washington, USA;
68 - Philip McMichael, Professor Emeritus of Development Sociology, Cornell University, USA;
69 - John Harriss, Professor Emeritus of International Development, Simon Fraser University, Canada;
70 - Kendra Strauss, Professor of Labour Studies, Simon Fraser University, Canada;
71 - Mritiunjoy Mohanty, Professor of Economics, Indian Institute of Management – Calcutta, India;
72 - Pablo Bortz, Professor of Economics, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Argentina and Researcher at CONICET;
73 - Padraig Carmody, Professor of Economic Geography, Trinity College – Dublin, Ireland;
74 - John Morrissey, Professor of Geography, National University of Ireland, Ireland;
75 - Michele Gamburd, Professor of Anthropology, Portland State University, USA;
76 - Elizabeth Dean Herman, Professor of Urbanism and Landscape, Rhodes School of Design, USA;
77 - Jonathan Walters, Professor of Religion and Bill Hudson Chair of Humanities, Whitman College, USA;
78 - Dip Kapoor, Professor of International Education, University of Alberta, Canada;
79 - Maggie Leung, Professor of International Development, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands;
80 - David Hulme, Professor of Development Studies, University of Manchester, U.K.;
81 - Adil Najam, Professor of International Relations, Earth and Environment, Boston University, USA;
82 - Patrick R Ireland, Professor of Political Science, Illinois Institute of Technology, USA;
83 - Rainer Kattel, Professor of Innovation and Public Governance, UCL, U.K.;
84 - Roar Høstaker, Professor of Sociology, Inland University of Applied Sciences, Norway;
85 - Gustavo Indart, Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Toronto, Canada;
86 - Nirmala Salgado, Professor of Religion, Augustana College, USA;
87 - Jonathan Goodhand, Professor of Conflict and Development Studies, SOAS – University of London, U.K.;
88 - S Subramanian, former Professor and Independent Scholar, India;
89 - Ann Blackburn, Old Dominion Professor in the Humanities, Cornell University, USA;
90 - Sunanda Sen, Levy Economics Institute – Bard College, USA;
91 - Namika Raby, Professor of Anthropology, California State University – Long Beach, USA;
92 - Maria Heim, Crosby Professor of Religion, Amherst College, USA;
93 - Christian Barry, Professor of Political Philosophy, Australian National University, Australia;
94 - Alicia Puyana, Professor of Economics, Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences, Mexico;
95 - R Ramakumar, Professor of Developing Societies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences – Mumbai, India;
96 - Venkatesh Athreya, former Professor of Development Economics, India;
97 - Rahula Mukhherji, Professor and Head of Political Science, South Asia Institute, University of Heidelberg, Germany;
98 - Kalinga Tudor Silva, Emeritus Professor Sociology, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka;
99 - Ruvani Ranasinha, Professor of Post-Colonial Studies, Kings College – University of London, U.K.;
100 - Sushil Khanna, Professor Emeritus of Economics, India Institute of Management –Calcutta, India;
101 - Ishac Diwan, Director of Research – Finance for Development Lab, Paris School of Economics, France;
102 - Devaka Gunawardena, Research Scholar, USA;
103 - Sirisha Naidu, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Missouri-Kansas City, USA;
104 - Karna Basu, Associate Professor of Economics, Hunter College and The Graduate Centre, City University of New York, USA;
105 - Mwangi wa Githinji, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts –Amherst, USA;
106 - Gabriel Zucman, Associate Professor of Economics, University of California – Berkeley, USA;
107 - Dean Baker, Senior Economist, Centre for Economics and Policy Research, USA;
108 - Mary Wrenn, Senior Lecturer – Economics, University of West England, U.K.;
109 - Gabriela Koehler, Economist, UNRISD, Switzerland;
110 - Surbi Kesar, Lecturer – Development Economics, SOAS – University of London, U.K.;
111 - Lynda Pickburn, Associate Professor of Economics, Hampshire College, USA;
112 - Abena Oduro, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Ghana, Ghana;
113 - Smita Ramnarain, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Rhode Island, USA;
114 - Susan Randolph, Emerita Associate Professor of Development Economics, University of Connecticut, USA;
115 - Vamsi Vakulabharanam; Associate Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, USA;
116 - Grieve Chelwa, Inaugural Post-Doctoral Fellow, Institute on Race and Political Economy, New School University, USA;
117 - Eduardo Strachman, Associate Professor of Economics, Sao Paolo State University, Brazil;
118 - Ingrid Kvangraven; Lecturer – International Development, King College, U.K.;
119 - Jerome Roos, Fellow in International Political Economy; London School of Economics, U.K.;
120 - Paul R. Gilbert, Senior Lecturer – International Development, Sussex University, U.K.;
121 - Sheba Thejani, Lecturer – International Development, Kings College – London, U.K.;
122 - Joshua Gellers, Associate Professor International Affairs, University of North Florida, USA;
123 - Nachi Mani, Associate Professor of Economics, Erode Arts and Science College, India;
124 - Isabella Weber, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, USA;
125 - Ram Manikkalingam, Director – Dialougue Advisory Group, The Netherlands and Sri Lanka;
126 - Bengi Akbulut, Associate Professor of Geography, Planning and Environment, Concordia University, Canada;
127 - Madhumita Dutta, Assistant Professor of Geography, Ohio State University, USA;
128 - Alessandra Mezzadri, Reader in Global Development and Political Economy, SOAS – University of London, U.K.;
129 - Alicia Y Lamin; Lecturer in Law, Harvard University, USA;
130 - Chris Baker, Historian, Political Economist, Author, Bangkok, Thailand;
131 - Andres Arauz, Senior Research Fellow – Economics, Centre for Economic and Policy Research, USA;
132 - Caroline Shenaz Hossein, Associate Professor of Global Development, University of Toronto, Canada;
133 - Alexander da Costa, Associate Professor of Social Justice and International Education, University of Alberta, Canada;
134 - Jennifer Cohen, Associate Professor of Global and Intercultural Studies, University of Miami - Ohio, USA;
135 - Steven Jordan, Associate Professor of Integrated Studies, McGill University, Canada;
136 - Pratheep Kumar, Assistant Professor of Law and Economics, CVV, India;
137 - Sarah Small, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Utah, USA;
138 - Darini Rajasingham-Senanayake, Anthropologist, Independent Researcher, Sri Lanka;
139 - Bart Klem, Associate Professor of Peace and Development Studies, School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, SWEDEN;
140 - Jesim Pais, Director – Society for Social and Economic Research, India;
141 - Lenore M Palladino, Assistant Professor of Economics and Public Policy, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, USA;
142 - Kalim Siddiqui, Senior Lecturer – Economics, University of Huddersfield, U.K.;
143 - Rajni Gamage, Post Doctoral Fellow, National University of Singapore, Singapore;
144 - Shanaz Akhatar, Postdoctoral Researcher – International Studies, University of Warwick, U.K.;
145 - Dina M Siddiqi, Clinical Associate Professor, New York University, USA;
146 - Geethika Dharmasinghe, Visiting Assistant Professor, Colgate University, USA;
147 - Eva Ambos, Research Fellow, University of Tubingen, Germany;
148 - Susan A Reed, Associate Professor of Women and Gender Studies, Bucknell University, USA;
149 - Sankar Varma, Research Scholar, Kerala Council for Historical Research, India;
150 - Narayani Sritharan, Fellow – Development Economics, Williams and Mary College, USA;
151 - Ayse Arslan, Assistant Professor of Development Studies, Haceteppe University, Turkey;
152 - Rohith Jyothish, Assistant Professor of Political Economy, O. P. Jindhal University, India;
153 - Giselle Thompson, Assistant Professor – Black Studies in Education, University of Alberta, Canada;
154 - Priyanthi Fernando, Executive Director – International Women’s Rights Action Watch-Asia Pacific; Sri Lanka;
155 - Deepta Chopra, Research Fellow, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, U.K.;
156 - Heloise Weber, Senior Lecturer – International Studies, The University of Queensland, Australia;
157 - Bishop Akolgo, Director, International Social Development Centre, Canada;
158 - Gilad Isaacs, Lecturer - Economics, Institute of Economic Justice, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa;
159 - Chirashree Das Gupta, Associate Professor – Economics and Political Economy, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India;
160 - Joeri Scholtens, Assistant Professor – Geography, Planning and International Development, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands;
161 - Samuel Jamiru Braima, Senior Lecturer, Fourah Bay College – University of Sierra Leon, Sierra Leone;
162 - Charles Abugre, Executive Director, International Development Economics Associates, Accra, Ghana
163 - Samanthi Gunawardana, Senior Lecturer – Gender and Development, Monash University, Australia;
164 - Stanley Chitukwi, Chief Executive Officer, AFRES, Malawi;
165 - Gregor Semieniuk, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, USA;
166 - Sudhanva Deshpande, Managing Editor, Leftword Books, India;
167 - Farah Mihlar, Senior Lecturer in Human Rights, Oxford Brookes University, U.K.;
168 - Kiran Grewal, Reader in Sociology, Goldsmiths College, U.K.;
169 - Himanshu, Associate Professor of Economics, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India;
170 - Ajit Zacharias, Senior Scholar, Levy Economics Institute, USA;
171 - Sree Padma Holt, Associate Research Fellow, Bowdoin College, USA;
172 - Dharshana Kasthurirathna, Senior Lecturer, Sri Lanka Institute of Technology (SLIT), Sri Lanka;
173 - Shyamain Wickramasinghe, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark;
174 - Nimanthi Rajasingham-Perera, Associate Professor of Women’s Studies, Colgate University, USA;
175 - Mythri Jegathesan, Associate Professor of Anthropology, Santa Clara University, USA;
176 - Bernard Anaba, Policy Analyst, The Integrated Social Development Centre, Ghana;
177 - Sharika Thiranagama, Associate Professor of Anthropology, Stanford University, USA;
178 - Amitav Ghosh, Novelist/Anthropologist, USA and India;
179 - Dhanusha Gihan Pathirana, Independent Economist, Sri Lanka;
180 - Agustina Calcagno, South Feminist Futures Futures A futures contract is a standardized advance commitment, negotiated on an organized futures market, to deliver a specified quantity of a precisely defined underlying asset at a specified time – the ‘delivery date’ – and place. Futures contracts are the most widely traded financial instruments in the world. , Argentina;
181 - Roman Rafael Vega Romero, Global Coordinator, People’s Health Movement, Columbia;
182 - Iratxe Perea Ozerin, University of the Basque Country, Basque Country, Spain

Other articles in English by Collective (87)

0 | 10 | 20 | 30 | 40 | 50 | 60 | 70 | 80



8 rue Jonfosse
4000 - Liège- Belgique

00324 60 97 96 80