An Urgent Call for Debt, Climate and Economic Justice

9 October 2023 by CADTM International , Collective


Communities all over the world are struggling and resisting the impacts of multiple crises. At a time of intensifying climate impacts and speculative increases of food and energy prices, governments, particularly in the Global South, are responding to unsustainable public debts and the lack of development and climate finance, with a rising wave of austerity, subjugation and extractivism.




We vehemently denounce the role of the World Bank World Bank
WB
The World Bank was founded as part of the new international monetary system set up at Bretton Woods in 1944. Its capital is provided by member states’ contributions and loans on the international money markets. It financed public and private projects in Third World and East European countries.

It consists of several closely associated institutions, among which :

1. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, 189 members in 2017), which provides loans in productive sectors such as farming or energy ;

2. The International Development Association (IDA, 159 members in 1997), which provides less advanced countries with long-term loans (35-40 years) at very low interest (1%) ;

3. The International Finance Corporation (IFC), which provides both loan and equity finance for business ventures in developing countries.

As Third World Debt gets worse, the World Bank (along with the IMF) tends to adopt a macro-economic perspective. For instance, it enforces adjustment policies that are intended to balance heavily indebted countries’ payments. The World Bank advises those countries that have to undergo the IMF’s therapy on such matters as how to reduce budget deficits, round up savings, enduce foreign investors to settle within their borders, or free prices and exchange rates.

(WB) and the International Monetary Fund IMF
International Monetary Fund
Along with the World Bank, the IMF was founded on the day the Bretton Woods Agreements were signed. Its first mission was to support the new system of standard exchange rates.

When the Bretton Wood fixed rates system came to an end in 1971, the main function of the IMF became that of being both policeman and fireman for global capital: it acts as policeman when it enforces its Structural Adjustment Policies and as fireman when it steps in to help out governments in risk of defaulting on debt repayments.

As for the World Bank, a weighted voting system operates: depending on the amount paid as contribution by each member state. 85% of the votes is required to modify the IMF Charter (which means that the USA with 17,68% % of the votes has a de facto veto on any change).

The institution is dominated by five countries: the United States (16,74%), Japan (6,23%), Germany (5,81%), France (4,29%) and the UK (4,29%).
The other 183 member countries are divided into groups led by one country. The most important one (6,57% of the votes) is led by Belgium. The least important group of countries (1,55% of the votes) is led by Gabon and brings together African countries.

http://imf.org
(IMF) that, together with other private and public lenders, perpetuate a flawed international financial architecture that exacerbates debt, climate, and economic crises, violating the basic needs and rights of millions of people and nature who have the least contribution, responsibility or control over these catastrophes. Together with the governments of the G7 and others in the global North that control these institutions, they must be held accountable for their historical responsibility in aggressively pushing loans even to corrupt and repressive regimes, and imposing harmful conditionalities that keep Global South countries debt-dependent and maldeveloped.

These institutions and governments continue to peddle their failed recipes despite their claim to promote global development and financial stability. Rather than advancing just, equitable and lasting solutions, they enable an endless cycle of suffering that generates enormous wealth for a global minority and pushes more and more people into increasingly abject poverty. Instead of delivering on their climate and development finance obligations, they are responding to increasing financing needs, by deepening the “Wall Street Consensus”: favoring debt-creating, market-based and private sector-privileging false solutions and thus, further promoting the financialisation of the global economy.

 We call for Debt Justice

The Global South bears the burden of unsustainable and illegitimate debts, that undermine sovereignty, impede self-determination and deepen poverty, inequality and the loss of control over needed resources. The loan conditionalities, policies, and practices endorsed and promoted by the WB and the IMF facilitate the accumulation of unpayable and crippling debts and impose the prioritization of debt payments over human and nature rights, social welfare, sustainable development and climate action. Increasing debt payments and austerity packages are used to impose disastrous economic models that drain precious resources from essential public services and promote their privatization, trap countries in a cycle of debt dependency that hinders poverty eradication and sustainable development efforts and perpetuates systemic injustice.

The IMF has also refused to put an end to surcharges or the penalties that it levies on heavily debt burdened countries. It is estimated by the Fund itself that borrowing countries were charged over $4 billion in surcharges on top of interest Interest An amount paid in remuneration of an investment or received by a lender. Interest is calculated on the amount of the capital invested or borrowed, the duration of the operation and the rate that has been set. payments and fees from the start of the pandemic up to end-2022. They include Pakistan, Ukraine, Jordan, Egypt, Gabon, Ecuador, Argentina, Albania, Tunisia and Mongolia, amongst other countries – all middle-income countries facing climate and debt distress but excluded from even minimal debt reductions by the G20 G20 The Group of Twenty (G20 or G-20) is a group made up of nineteen countries and the European Union whose ministers, central-bank directors and heads of state meet regularly. It was created in 1999 after the series of financial crises in the 1990s. Its aim is to encourage international consultation on the principle of broadening dialogue in keeping with the growing economic importance of a certain number of countries. Its members are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, USA, UK and the European Union (represented by the presidents of the Council and of the European Central Bank). /Paris Club Paris Club This group of lender States was founded in 1956 and specializes in dealing with non-payment by developing countries.

debt “relief” schemes.

The illegitimacy of this debt burden is rooted in the historical realities of colonialism and slavery and the various mechanisms which perpetuate and reinforce global inequality. Seldom, if ever, have these purported debts benefited the peoples in whose name, but without whose consultation or consent, they were incurred.

They are tainted with corruption, violations of human rights, environmental destruction and a host of other harms to people and the planet. The debt crisis has not been acknowledged as a systemic crisis by the WB, IMF, G7 governments and other lenders as defaults are not yet posing a risk to financial markets in countries of the Global North. They fail to recognise that we are confronted with a systemic debt crisis in terms of human suffering in countries of the Global South. The consequence of not addressing the critical reality of debt domination in a fair and comprehensive way is leading to another lost decade for the rights and wellbeing of peoples and the planet, as well as hindering the possibilities of climate action in the global South. It allows the continued transfer of financial, economic, human and environmental resources from South to North and further sustains colonial legacies that manifest to this day in power asymmetries between North and South.

 We call for Reparations and Restitution in response to the climate emergency

The devastating consequences of the climate crisis hits impoverished communities hardest, even as they are the least responsible for global greenhouse gas emissions. Extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and resource scarcity, all exacerbate poverty and hunger, dislocate populations, and erode human rights, creating a grave threat to life and the sustainability of our planet. Like the debt crisis, the climate crisis is rooted in the plunder of the resources of the South, for which we demand reparations and restitution for the massive climate debt owed by the North.

Despite this, the WB and the IMF, together with the G7 governments that lead them and other private lenders, actively contribute to the perpetuation of the climate emergency through their historical and continuing support to economic models that have repeatedly shown their failure via the large scale increase of financial, social and ecological debt. This is particularly evident in their continued support for the fossil fuel sector. Both institutions claim that they are more climate-aware, and are moving away from fossil fuels towards supporting renewable energy, but this is belied by almost $15 billion poured into fossil fuel projects since the 2015 Paris agreement. At the same time, they are creating more lending facilities to cater to the private sector and de-risk their investments in climate action and energy transition.

More debt and profit Profit The positive gain yielded from a company’s activity. Net profit is profit after tax. Distributable profit is the part of the net profit which can be distributed to the shareholders. -led private sector investment will neither deliver on the decarbonisation of global North economies nor cover the climate financing needs of the global south. These strategies are yet another example of the failure of rich countries to deliver grants-based climate finance, breaching the UNFCCC principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities”, which recognizes the global North’s responsibility for the climate crisis. Furthermore, without adequate debt cancellation, any scaled up lending from the IMF and World Bank, or the private sector, risks being used to repay existing creditors, a situation that not only fails to assist countries with financing their efforts to tackle the climate emergency but in truth, plunges them deeper in the debt trap.

 We call for economic justice

The IMF and World Bank, led by the G7 governments, have a long track-record of lending aggressively and irresponsibly for their own economic and geopolitical interests, showing no qualms in lending to Southern regimes that they very well know widely violated human rights, and contributed to corruption and the pursuit of narrow elite benefits. They should be held to account for ignoring the prime mandate of governments to protect the public interest, for failing to rigorously exercise due diligence, including undertaking investigation and monitoring of the financial, social, environmental impacts of their debt-funded funded projects.

They also push neoliberal reforms that dismantle social safety nets, privatize essential services, push for regressive taxes, erode labor protections and roll back the regulatory and developmental role of the public sector, resulting in widespread economic insecurity and worsened inequality. The loan conditionalities that include the privatization of water and other essential services constrained the access of low-income communities and exposed them to greater health risks during Covid-19. These IFIs further undermine the economies and livelihoods in the Global South by rendering them vulnerable to global financial shocks and volatility of commodity prices.

Despite the detrimental impact of these policies, the WB and the IMF continue to act on the basis of their own impunity, promoting market-based approaches that prioritize private finance to tackle the developmental setbacks since the pandemic started. This approach exacerbates inequality, perpetuates economic disparities, and fails to deliver inclusive and sustainable economic growth. The financial architecture endorsed by these institutions enables the accumulation of wealth by the few at the expense of the many, perpetuating a system that prioritizes profit over human well-being and undermines all attempts to secure justice for affected peoples and the planet.

 Our Urgent Demands

We call on the IMF and World Bank, all governments North and South, and private financial actors to act now to ensure urgently needed and real reform of the international financial architecture alongside undertaking systemic solutions that include building post-carbon societies and economies where financial, food and energy sovereignty are a reality.

  1. Immediate and unconditional external debt cancellation for all countries in need from all lenders, starting with the cancellation of illegitimate debts, in order to fulfill the universal human rights obligation to create an international economic order that enables all countries to deal with the multiple crises and comply with the rights of their peoples and the planet.
  2. Cancellation of external debt for low- as well as moderate-income countries and communities, and ensuring that all lending policies and safeguards of the IMF and other international financial institutions give primacy to human rights obligations and environmental protections and provide accessible mechanisms for popular redress and reparations.
  3. International and domestic legal frameworks to stop the accumulation of unsustainable and illegitimate debts, offer fair and comprehensive solutions to debt crises and ensure sanctions and reparations for those responsible for the crimes and human rights violations committed through the system of perpetual indebtedness. Among other elements, this might include:
  4. A new multilateral debt resolution framework under UN auspices, rather than lender-dominated processes, that addresses unsustainable and illegitimate debt
  5. A new approach to debt sustainability that has the financing needs for the Sustainable Development Goals, climate, and gender equality at its core and recognizes the primacy of human and nature rights obligations.
  6. Legislation to make it mandatory for private lenders to participate in debt cancellation
  7. Legislation to end the predatory action of vulture funds Vulture funds
    Vulture fund
    Investment funds who buy, on the secondary markets and at a significant discount, bonds once emitted by countries that are having repayment difficulties, from investors who prefer to cut their losses and take what price they can get in order to unload the risk from their books. The Vulture Funds then pursue the issuing country for the full amount of the debt they have purchased, not hesitating to seek decisions before, usually, British or US courts where the law is favourable to creditors.
  8. Binding principles on responsible lending and borrowing that put an end to lending that leads to the exploitation of peoples and destruction of the environment
  9. Genuine participatory, inclusive debt transparency and accountability mechanisms and processes, including national debt audits
  10. The immediate delivery of new, additional and non-debt creating climate finance for adaptation, mitigation and loss and damage, far beyond the unmet $100 billion/year pledge, that adequately meets the needs of the Global South
  11. The immediate delivery of new, additional and non-debt creating climate finance for adaptation, mitigation and loss and damage, far beyond the unmet $100 billion/year pledge, that adequately meets the needs of the Global South.
  12. Recognition of the existence of a climate debt, additional to a historical, financial, ecological and social debt, that the global North owes to the global South. This recognition should lead to structural and financial reparations, as well as ecological restoration, phasing out fossil fuel subsidies, ending extractivism, and shifting to decarbonized modes of production, distribution and consumption.
  13. Democratize sovereign lending and borrowing processes by ensuring transparency, accountability and representation. States must also be held accountable for debt decisions and expenditures which often end up benefiting the private sector and corporations at the expense of human rights and public and planetary welfare.

AFRICA

African Coalition on Green Growth

Botswana

Centre for Climatology and Applied Research

Botswana

Southern Africa Climate Change Coalition

Botswana

URGENCE CONTRE LA FAIM (UCF)

Chad

Aspafrique-Jics

Côte d’Ivoire

Association de Développement Agricole Educatif et Sanitaire de Manono ADAES

Democratic Republic of Congo

Integrated Social Development Centre

Ghana

Good Health Community Programmes

Kenya

Jamaa Resource Initiatives

Kenya

Plateforme climat et adaptation

Mali

Association Nigerienne des Scouts de l’Environnement (ANSEN)

Niger

Centre for Human Rights and Climate Change Research

Nigeria

Club Changement Climatique Ziguinchor

Senegal

Plateforme nationale des acteurs pour une justice climatique/ Sénégal

Senegal

REACHOUT SALONE

Sierra Leone

groundWork/ Friends of the Earth South Africa

South Africa

Institute for Economic Justice

South Africa

Jeunes Volontaires pour l’environnement

Togo

OJEDD Togo

Togo

WILPF TOGO

Togo

Youth volunteers for Environment

Togo

DISABILITY PEOPLES FORUM UGANDA

Uganda

INITIATIVE FOR SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RIGHTS (ISER)

Uganda

Kikandwa Environmental Association

Uganda

CAN Zambia

Zambia

Zimbabwe People’s Land Rights Movement

Zimbabwe

ASIA

Bangladesh Nari Progati Sangha (BNPS)

Bangladesh

COAST Foundation (EquityBD)

Bangladesh

Equity Equity The capital put into an enterprise by the shareholders. Not to be confused with ’hard capital’ or ’unsecured debt’. and Justice Working Group Bangladesh [EquityBD]

Bangladesh

KOTHOWAIN (vulnerable peoples dev. org)

Bangladesh

National Federation of technical and industrial workers

Bangladesh

NRDS / SDG Action Alliance

Bangladesh

Bangladesh Krishok Federation

Bangladesh

CEHRDF

Bangladesh

Global Tapestry of Alternatives

India

Mines, Mineral & People

India

Praxis

India

Retired Professor/ AEPF

India

Association For Promotion Sustainable Development

India

KRuHA

Indonesia

Save Malaysia Stop Lynas

Malaysia

Third World Network

Malaysia

ALTSEAN-Burma

Myanmar

Stothard

Myanmar

All Nepal Peasants Federation (ANPFa) Nepal

Nepal

All Nepal Women Association

Nepal

ANPFa/TAFJA Nepal

Nepal

Food Sovereignty and Climate Justice Forum/Aid Monitor Alliance

Nepal

Gefont

Nepal

Human Rights Alliance

Nepal

Rural Area Development Programme (RADP)

Nepal

South Asia Alliance for Poverty Eradication (SAAPE)

Nepal

TAFJA NEPAL

Nepal

Digo Bikas Institute

Nepal

Pakaid

Pakistan

Pakistan Fisherfolk Forum

Pakistan

ALMA-QC

Philippines

Bantay Kita - Publish What You Pay Philippines

Philippines

Bukluran ng Manggagawang Pilipino (BMP)

Philippines

Freedom from Debt Coalition

Philippines

K4K QC

Philippines

Koalisyon para sa Karapatan sa Sapat na Pagkain or National Food Coalition

Philippines

MMVA

Philippines

Peoples Development Institute (PDI)

Philippines

Samahan ng Progresibong Kabataan (SPARK)

Philippines

Sanlakas

Philippines

Task Force Detainees of the Philippines

Philippines

University of the Philippines Center for Integrative and Development Studies Program on Alternative Development (UP CIDS AltDev)

Philippines

Climate Watch Thailand

Thailand

EUROPE

11.11.11

Belgium

Argentina

Belgium

Masaryk University Brno

Czech Republic

Adéquations

France

Plateforme Française Dette et Développement

France

CVJM Pfalz - AK weltweit

Germany

erlassjahr.de

Germany

Evang. Kirche im Rheinland

Germany

Global Policy Forum

Germany

World Economy, Ecology & Development - WEED

Germany

Regionalgruppe Attac Aalen

Germany

AbibiNsroma Foundation ANF

Ghana

NKUA

Greece

Financial Justice Ireland

Ireland

Rinascimento Green

Italy

Tripla Difesa Onlus Guardie Sicurezza Sociale de Eco Zoofila

Italy

Debt Justice Norway

Norway

Umanotera, The Slovenian Foundation for Sustainable Development

Slovenia

Red Latina sin fronteras

Spain

Observatori del Deute en la Globalització ODG

Spain

Debt Justice UK

United Kingdom

Fresh Eyes

United Kingdom

Global Justice Now

United Kingdom

Jubilee Scotland

United Kingdom

The Movements Trust

United Kingdom

LAC

Abrazo a la Plaza del Sol

Argentina

Al Borde (construyendo pensamiento indisciplinado) / UNLP

Argentina

AMUMRA - Asociacion civil de derechos Humanos Mujeres Unidas Migrantes y Refugiadas en Argentina

Argentina

Asamblea No a la Entrega de la Costa de Quilmes y Avellaneda

Argentina

Asamblea popular

Argentina

Asamblea por el agua pura y los bienes comunes de Guaymallen

Argentina

Asamblea Socioambiental por el Agua de Guaymallén

Argentina

ATTAC - CADTM Argentina

Argentina

Autoconvocatoria por la Suspensión del Pago e Investigación de la Deuda

Argentina

Basta de falsas soluciones

Argentina

Biblioteca & Museo Claudia Pía Baudracco

Argentina

BIBLIOTECA POPULAR PAJARITA DE PAPEL

Argentina

CADTM - AYNA

Argentina

Carta Abierta Concepcion del Uruguay (E.R)

Argentina

CEMIDA (CENTRO DE MILITARES PARA LA DEMOCRACIA ARGENTINA)

Argentina

Cia. Teatral La Candelaria

Argentina

Cibermilitantes de Cristina y Soberanxs con Cristina

Argentina

CICOP

Argentina

Colectiva Plurinacional Abya Yala

Argentina

CONICET / UNLP

Argentina

Consejo Latinoamericano de Iglesias

Argentina

Coordinadora en defensa de jubilados

Argentina

Corriente Emancipación Sur

Argentina

Corriente Política de Izquierda CPI

Argentina

CPI Jubilados en lucha

Argentina

CTA BAHÍA BLANCA

Argentina

CTAA CAPITAL

Argentina

Diálogo 2000-Jubileo Sur Argentina

Argentina

Docencia provincia Buenos Aires

Argentina

Docente jubilado

Argentina

EAR

Argentina

Economistas de Izquierda EDI

Argentina

ECOSUR, Ecología, Cultura y Educación desde los Pueblos del Sur

Argentina

EMANCIPACIÓN SUR

Argentina

EVA

Argentina

FEDEFAM

Argentina

Fm de la calke

Argentina

FRENTE DE LA RESISTENCIA

Argentina

Frente Ni una menos Olavarría

Argentina

Fundación Equifem

Argentina

Hermanita de Jesús

Argentina

Hnas de la Misericordia de las Américas

Argentina

Independiente

Argentina

Iniciativa Arcoiris de Ecología Política

Argentina

Internacional Progresista

Argentina

jubilado

Argentina

Jubilado Docente

Argentina

Madres de Plaza de Mayo Línea Fundadora

Argentina

Marabunta - Corriente Social y Política

Argentina

Médica

Argentina

Mesa Coordinadora de Jubilados y Pensionados

Argentina

Militante de DDHH

Argentina

Movimiento Feminista

Argentina

Mujeres del.pantanillo

Argentina

MULCS Movimiento por la Unidad Latinoamericana y el Cambio Social

Argentina

ni una menos

Argentina

Nuevos Vientos

Argentina

Observatorio de DDHH

Argentina

OBSERVATORIO DE LA RIQUEZA PADRE ARRUPE

Argentina

Obvservatorio Autónomo de conflictos socioambientales en Argentina

Argentina

Opinion Socialista en la Autoconvocatoria

Argentina

Particular

Argentina

Periódico VAS

Argentina

Pertenezco a la Asamblea del No a la mina de Esquel

Argentina

Pj nacional

Argentina

Project Allende

Argentina

Propuesta Tatu

Argentina

Psicogerontología

Argentina

Religiosa

Argentina

Resumen Latinoamericano

Argentina

Secretaria de DDHH CTA Bahia Blanca

Argentina

Soberanos

Argentina

Soberanos geopolitica

Argentina

SUTEBA

Argentina

UNA

Argentina

Unidad Popular

Argentina

Upami uns

Argentina

UTE..Soberanos con Cristina

Argentina

Vecinos de Irala y adyacencias

Argentina

Caribbean Policy Development Centre

Barbados

Asociacion Coordinadora de la Mujer

Bolivia

Coordinadora de la Mujer

Bolivia

POSGRADO FACSO UMSS

Bolivia

Global Alliance for Tax Justice

Brazil

La Ruta del Clima

Costa Rica

Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar

Ecuador

ENRRFM

Mexico

Maestra jubilada

Mexico

Movimiento de Unidad Socialista

Mexico

ResISSSTE-CNTE Chihuahua

Mexico

Unión Popular Valle Gómez

Mexico

Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez

Mexico

Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana

Mexico

Deuda x clima

Mexico

Debt for climate Panama/Scientist Rebellion Panama

Panama

Movimiento Panama Vale Mas Sin Mineria

Panama

Sociedad Panameña Salud Pública

Panama

Ya ES YA

Panama

Ninguna

Uruguay

Coalición de Tendencia Clasista (CTC+VZLA)

Venezuela

Universidad de Los Andes

Venezuela

MENA

The General Federation of Workers’ Unions in Iraq/The General Union of Workers in Iraq Electricity

Iraq

Arab youth climate movement- Lebanon

Lebanon

Tunisian Observatory of Economy

Tunisia

NORTH AMERICA

CAN Canada

Canada

Federation of Sisters of St. Joseph of Canada

Canada

KAIROS: Canadian Ecumenical Justice Initiatives

Canada

Justice is Global

United States

JVE

United States

Presente.org

United States

OCEANIA

Australian National University

Australia

Climate Action Network Australia

Australia

Jubilee Australia Research Centre

Australia

REGIONAL/GLOBAL

Asian Peoples’ Movement on Debt and Development (APMDD)

Regional/Global

CADTM International Network

Regional/Global

Congregation of Our Lady of Chairty of the Good Shepherd

Regional/Global

Eurodad (European Network on Debt and Development)

Regional/Global

ESCR-Net

Regional/Global

Global Alliance for Tax Justice

Regional/Global

JUBILEO SUR/AMÉRICAS

Regional/Global

MenaFem Movement for Economic, development and ecological justice

Regional/Global

Natural Justice

Regional/Global

NGO Forum on ADB

Regional/Global

Oil Change International

Regional/Global

Red Latinoamericana por Justicia Económica y Social (LATINDADD)

Regional/Global

Society for International Development (SID)

Regional/Global

WoMin African Alliance

Regional/Global

Emmaus International

Regional/Global

INDIVIDUALS

Adriana Beatriz Haedo

Argentina

Alejandra Dixon

Argentina

Alejandro Albistur

Argentina

Alicia Torre

Argentina

Ana Lelia Calafat

Argentina

Ana Rosa Ambrogi

Argentina

Ana Siufi

Argentina

Anthony Phillips

Argentina

Antonio Daniel Dalmasso

Argentina

Beatriz

Argentina

Beverly

Argentina

Beverly Keene

Argentina

Carlos Aznárez

Argentina

Carmen Alicia Morell

Argentina

Claudia Hasanbegovic

Argentina

Claudia Vanesa Vitancor

Argentina

Claudio Alejandro Giorno

Argentina

Daniel Ozuna

Argentina

Daniela Luz Caivano

Argentina

Dante Patrignani

Argentina

Demián Alejandro García Orfanó

Argentina

Edith Cristina Martinez

Argentina

Eduardo

Argentina

Eduardo Naranjo Elgue

Argentina

Eduardo René Aibar

Argentina

Elisa Malizzia

Argentina

Elsa María Bruzzone

Argentina

Enrique Gandolfo

Argentina

Estela Nelida Rosso

Argentina

Ester Agunin

Argentina

Fernanda Negrin

Argentina

Gerardo Roberto Martinez

Argentina

Graciela Ester Beascoechea

Argentina

Graciela Ramona Gonzalez

Argentina

Guillermo Robledo

Argentina

Hugo Antonio Blasco

Argentina

Jorge Luis Sorda

Argentina

Jose Luis

Argentina

Juan Carlos Maceiras

Argentina

Liliana Ines Romero

Argentina

Liliana Orfilia Marzano

Argentina

Mabel Bellucci

Argentina

Manuel Jeronimo Espejo Revol

Argentina

Marcela Hebe Arceo

Argentina

Marcia Rodríguez Otegui

Argentina

María Adela Antokoletz

Argentina

Maria Del Carmen Darriba

Argentina

María Elena Saludas

Argentina

Maria Liliana Debenedetti

Argentina

María Marta Aversa

Argentina

Maria Rodas

Argentina

María Sara Melo

Argentina

Maria Silvia Scorza

Argentina

Mariana Mondini

Argentina

Mariano Féliz

Argentina

Mario Gonnet

Argentina

Marta Sahores

Argentina

Marta Silvia Poggiese

Argentina

Mercedes Centena

Argentina

Miguel Ángel Feola

Argentina

Miguel Barnichea

Argentina

Monica Carmen Castro

Argentina

Monica Colaianni

Argentina

Monica Raquel Oliver

Argentina

Natalia Cantelmi

Argentina

Natividad Obeso

Argentina

Necqa

Argentina

Nina Isabel Brugo Marcó

Argentina

Noemí Naón

Argentina

Nora Cortiñas

Argentina

Norberto H Pereyra

Argentina

Osvaldo Antionio Lopez

Argentina

Pablo Bergel

Argentina

Pablo Goodbar

Argentina

Pablo Justiniano

Argentina

Pablo Martin

Argentina

Pablo Sessano

Argentina

Pamela Mackey

Argentina

Ricardo María García

Argentina

Rosa Araya

Argentina

Silvia Adriana Ferrara

Argentina

Silvia Baffigi

Argentina

Silvia Benchimol

Argentina

Silvia María Hernández

Argentina

Silvia Romero

Argentina

Sonia Tobal

Argentina

Susana Garbiero

Argentina

Susana Lucia Pannocchia

Argentina

Susana Moreira

Argentina

Teresa Malalan

Argentina

Tomás Arguello

Argentina

Verónica Zoppis

Argentina

Victoria Corte

Argentina

Victoria Mariani

Argentina

Vivian Palmbaum

Argentina

Viviana Pinto

Argentina

Elise Klein

Australia

Glen Klatovsky

Australia

Luke Fletcher

Australia

Aminul Hoque

Bangladesh

Gabriel Tripura

Bangladesh

Md. Ahsanul Karim

Bangladesh

Mohammed Omour Faruk Bhuiya

Bangladesh

Sanat Kumar Bhowmik

Bangladesh

Shahnaz Sumi

Bangladesh

Abdul Awal

Bangladesh

Abul Hossain

Bangladesh

Badrul Alam

Bangladesh

Md. Ilias Miah

Bangladesh

Mohammed Omour Faruk Bhuiya

Bangladesh

Geneva Oliverie

Barbados

Femmy Thewissen

Belgium

Lydia Machaka

Belgium

Álvaro Céspedes Quiroz

Bolivia

Tania Sanchez

Bolivia

Tania Sanchez Montaño

Bolivia

Dominic Nyasulu

Botswana

Justice Zvaita

Botswana

Prof Olga Laiza Kupika

Botswana

Lays Ushirobira

Brazil

Beth Lorimer

Canada

Pratishtha Singh

Canada

Sue Wilson

Canada

Alifa Abouna Mahamat

Chad

Jennifer Rojas

Costa Rica

Alassane Traoré

Côte d’Ivoire

Issouf A. Rayan Doumbia

Côte d’Ivoire

Kamamoko Fadiga

Côte d’Ivoire

Oumar Ouema

Côte d’Ivoire

Claudio Cattaneo

Czech Republic

Alexandre Kyungu Musheto

Democratic Republic of Congo

Miriam Lang

Ecuador

Mathieu Paris

France

Yveline Nicolas

France

Andreas Wilking

Germany

Eva-Maria Hartmann

Germany

Herma Geissr

Germany

Klaus Urgast

Germany

Maja Kohler

Germany

Verena Kröss

Germany

Werner Steppuhn

Germany

Wilhelm Teuerle

Germany

Wolfgang Lippel

Germany

Bodo Ellmers

Germany

Bernard Anaba

Ghana

Kenneth Nana Amoateng

Ghana

Dereje Alemayehu

Global

Giorgos Velegrakis

Greece

Anuradha Chenoy

India

Mange Ram Adhana

India

Tom Thomas

India

Ashish Kothari

India

Ashok Shrimali

India

Mange Ram Adhana

India

Muhammad Reza Sahib

Indonesia

Intisar Yousif

Iraq

Thomas Mc Donagh

Ireland

Edda Giuberti

Italy

Stephanie Brancaforte

Italy

Liko Collins

Kenya

Maurice Ouma Odhiambo

Kenya

Sandra Misiribi

Kenya

Nouhad Awwad

Lebanon

Chan Alan

Malaysia

Bhumika Muchhala

Malaysia

Bréhima Traore

Mali

Bertha Olivas Hernández

Mexico

Daniel Aguilar

Mexico

David Barkin

Mexico

Ernesto Jiménez Olin

Mexico

Gustavo De La Rosa Hickerson

Mexico

I Yazmina Araiza D

Mexico

María Del Carmen Núñez Mtz.

Mexico

Noel Antonio García Rodríguez

Mexico

Pedro Vázquez Olivares

Mexico

Rosa Isela Quintana Palomino

Mexico

Rosaura Venegas Reyes

Mexico

Debbie Stothard

Myanmar

Pemba Lama

Nepal

Pravesh Kumar Acharya

Nepal

Rajendra Bahadur Adhikari

Nepal

Sadiksha Chauhan

Nepal

Suman Pd Parajuli

Nepal

Abhishek Shestha

Nepal

Bidur Subedi

Nepal

Dr Keshab Khadka

Nepal

Praman Adhikari

Nepal

Safal Ambuhang Subba

Nepal

Fatchima Djibrilla

Niger

Omoyemen Lucia Odigie-Emmanuel

Nigeria

Julie Rødje

Norway

Marikka Elsbak

Norway

Asim Nawaz Khan

Pakistan

Saeed Baloch

Pakistan

Fatima Majeed

Pakistan

Eddy Cabrera Arias

Panama

Heine Aven

Panama

Jose Eugenio Soute

Panama

Renate Sponer

Panama

Aaron Pedrosa

Philippines

Alvin Jimenez

Philippines

Ananeza Aban

Philippines

Aurea G. Miclat-Teves

Philippines

Beverly Fragata-Besmanos

Philippines

Domingo P. Mole

Philippines

Elvira C. Quintela

Philippines

Emmanuel C. Amistad

Philippines

Ernesto Juan H. Royandoyan

Philippines

John Edison Ubaldo

Philippines

Maria Maranan

Philippines

Merlie Sienes Bautista

Philippines

Rovik Obanil

Philippines

Bronwen Tucker

Regional/Global

Carola Mejia

Regional/Global

Iolanda Fresnillo

Regional/Global

Katherine Robinson

Regional/Global

Martha Flores

Regional/Global

Maxime Perriot

Regional/Global

Pooja

Regional/Global

Samantha Hargreaves

Regional/Global

Shereen Talaat

Regional/Global

Tanya L. Roberts Davis

Regional/Global

Winifred Doherty

Regional/Global

Rosa Balliro

Scotland

Aissatou Keita

Senegal

Sadou Ba

Senegal

Edmond B.Margai

Sierra Leone

Nika Tavčar

Slovenia

Kamal Ramburuth

South Africa

Yegeshni Moodley

South Africa

Nicola Scherer

Spain

Red Latina Sin Fronteras

Spain

Wanun Permpibul

Thailand

Charlotte Kalanbani

Togo

Mlagani Kodjo Moïse

Togo

Monsin Gilles Florent Etonam

Togo

Sena Alouka

Togo

Amine El Kamel

Tunisia

Angella Kasule Nabwowe

Uganda

Kaganga John

Uganda

Kayanga Peter

Uganda

Dorothy Guerrero

United Kingdom

Eva Watkinson

United Kingdom

Greenfield Clark

United Kingdom

Andy Rurherford

United Kingdom

Nancy Treviño

United States of America

Valentina Dallona

United States of America

Zachary Kaplan

United States of America

Elizabeth Claudia Corte

Uruguay

María Esther Burgos

Venezuela

Pedro Vargas

Venezuela

Alex Mutale

Zambia

Casandra Ndlovu

Zimbabwe

Hilary


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