The Use of Rwanda’s External Debt (1990-1994) - The Responsibility of Donors and Creditors

4 April 2004 by Michel Chossudovsky , Pierre Galand

Ten years after the 1994 Genocide, the role of financial institutions has to be fully understood. Development aid and foreign loans were channelled towards financing the military and paramilitary. The donors turned a blind eye. This report examines the role of multilateral and bilateral donors including Western governments and the Bretton Woods institutions.

The mission was composed of Belgian Economist and Senator Pierre Galand (Mission head) and Canadian Economist Professor Michel Chossudovsky. The report, was based on field work conducted in Rwanda in 1996. The mandate of the mission was to identify the role of international financial institutions, donors and creditors in relation to the genocide and ethnic massacres of 1994.

The mission was set up at the request of the Rwandan authorities, formally under UNDP UNDP
United Nations Development Programme
The UNDP, founded in 1965 and based in New York, is the UN’s main agency of technical assistance. It helps the DC, without any political restrictions, to set up basic administrative and technical services, trains managerial staff, tries to respond to some of the essential needs of populations, takes the initiative in regional co-operation programmes and co-ordinates, theoretically at least, the local activities of all the UN operations. The UNDP generally relies on Western expertise and techniques, but a third of its contingent of experts come from the Third World. The UNDP publishes an annual Human Development Report which, among other things, classifies countries by their Human Development Rating (HDR).


Please note that the original text of this report is in French and that the English text is an unofficial translation, which has not be checked by the authors. In analyzing and quoting this document, please always refer to the French original.

Report in english:

Report in french:

Source: Centre for Research on Globalisation.

Other articles in English by Michel Chossudovsky (3)

Pierre Galand

Se définit comme humaniste, tiers-mondiste, pacifiste, altermondialiste, militant des droits de l’Homme et du droit des peuples à disposer d’eux-mêmes.
Membre de nombreuses associations.
Ancien sénateur (Belgique)

De 1967 à 1996 : secrétaire général d’OXFAM Belgique
Depuis 1986 : président de l’Association belgo-palestinienne
De 1994 à 2002 : président du Centre national de coopération au développement (CNCD)
Depuis 1998 : président de l’Organisation mondiale contre la Torture - Europe
Depuis 1999 : président de l’association belge des Amis du Monde diplomatique
Depuis 2007 : président du Centre d’Action Laïque



8 rue Jonfosse
4000 - Liège- Belgique

00324 60 97 96 80